Sunday, December 13, 2015

ROM, EPROM, EEPROM that I like

Here is a quick-check list of different roms that are easy to get.
All run on single supply voltages of 5v and are accessed via a parallel bus.
Also listed is what to do with those pesky control pins when if you just want these to be read by the controlling system (NES, Genesis, z80, etc)

8-bit UV Eproms:

27c16 - 2,048b x8 = 2 KBytes 
27c32 - 4,096b x8 = 4 KBytes
27c64 - 8,192b x8 = 8 KBytes 
27c128 - 16,384b x8 = 16 KBytes
27c256 - 32,768b x8 = 32 KBytes
27c512 - 65,536b x8 = 64 Kbytes

8-bit EEPROMs:

29f010 - 131,072b x8 = 128 KBytes alt: 29ee010, 49f010
29f020 - 262,144b x8 = 256 KBytes alt: 49f020
29f040 - 524,288b x8 = 512 KBytes alt: 49f040

8- or 16-bit UV EPROMs:

27c400 - 512Kb x8 or 256Kb x16
27c800 - 1Mb x8 or 512Kb x16
27c160 - 2Mb x8 or 1Mb x16
27c322 - 2Mb x16 (no 8-bit mode available)

8- or 16-bit EEPROMs:

29f200  -  256Kb x8 or 128Kb x16 (~1.64usd ea)
29f400 - 512Kb x8 or 256Kb x16 (~2.11usd ea)
29f800 - 1Mb x8 or 512Kb x16 (~3.12usd ea)
29f160 - 2Mb x8 or 1Mb x16 (price unknown)

8-bit EEPROMs I am looking into:

29- or 49-f040  - 512Kb x8
29f080  -  more info once I use them
29f016
29f032

There are of course hundreds of other roms, but I don't use them.

Control Pins:

None of these pins can be left hanging (disconnected) as far as I know. So don't do it.
Note: "!" will be used to distinguish low-enable pins. This means that when this input is pulled low, the function is enabled.

!CE - Chip Enable, AKA !E:
Most likely your system will need this to be connected to the control bus of the system. Sometimes it is connected to GND directly if your system has NO other memory that it must address. Sometimes it is connect to !OE, but only if your system has no other memory to access.

!WE - Write Enable. AKA !WR:
Typically your system will not be able to program the rom, so this should be pulled high by a resistor connected to vcc. Sometimes you can get away with connecting this pin directly to vcc without a resistor. Anywhere between 4k7 to 10k ohms should be good.

!OE - Output Enable. AKA !RD, !G:
Most likely your system will need this to be connected to the control bus of the system. Sometimes it is connected to GND directly if your system has NO other memory that it must address. Sometimes it is connect to !CE, but only if your system has no other memory to access.

!PGM - Program Enable:
This is similar to !WE but is only seen on a select few ROMs that also require a VPP voltage. Connet this pin to vcc inside your system.

VPP - Programming voltage:
This is typically a high voltage of 12v to 21v required to program a UV EPROM. This is not going to be used by your system, so it should always be pulled high/VCC/+5v.

!OEVPP - Output Enable / Programming voltage
When low (0v), this pin acts as the data output enable pin. When high (vcc) this pin shuts off data output. When connected to vpp (typ. 12v - 21v) this pin acts as vpp putting the chip into programming mode. Connect this pin to your control bus as though it were just !OE.

Q15A-1 - This pin is very special! When in 16-bit mode (byte pin high), this pin is used as data pin D15 or Q15.When in 8-bit mode (byte pin low), this pin is Address pin minus 1. And yes, by minus 1, this is less than 0. What that means is, the pin will connect to A0 on your computer's bus, eprom pin A0 will then connect to computer side A1, etc. here is a little diagram:

rom ---- computer
A-1 ---- A0
A0 ----- A1
A1 ----- A2
A2 ----- A3

!BYTEVPP - Byte Mode / Program Supply:
This pin is pulled high if using the rom in 16-bit mode, or ground when in 8-bit mode.
When this pin is connected either to VSS or VCC, then VPP is ignored, The only time the VPP function is used is when the voltage connected is 12v to 21v as instructed by the appropriate datasheet.
Further explanation from a datasheet:

The M27C160 (for example) has two organisations, Word-wide and Byte-wide. The organisation is selected by the signal level on the BYTEVPP pin. When BYTEVPP is at VIH the Word-wide organisation is selected and the Q15A–1 pin is used for Q15 Data Output. When the BYTEVPP pin is at VIL the Byte-wide organisation is selected and the Q15A–1 pin is used for the Address Input A–1. When the memory is logically regarded as 16 bit wide, but read in the Byte-wide organisation, then with A–1 at VIL the lower 8 bits of the 16 bit data are selected and with A–1 at VIH the upper 8 bits of the 16 bit data are selected.

For a much more in-depth explanation of eproms, see:
https://wiki.xtronics.com/index.php/How_EPROMS_Work



Saturday, December 12, 2015

Odyssey 2 variety cart

I am also currently working on a flash cart for the Odyssey 2 that supports a wide array of roms, proms, eproms, etc.

27C-, 28F-, 29F-, 29EE-, 49F-, etc.
16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 010, 020, 040, and maybe more.


SwinSID SE - reworked by Me

Been toying with the SwinSID which is a decent DIY version of the SID chip. My version takes up no more space than the original and would be a drop-in-replacement with no extra wiring. Programming the atmega would be a little difficult though since there is no room for an ICSP.

SMS variety Cart

Currently working on a flash cart for the SMS that supports a wide array of roms, proms, eproms, etc.

27C-, 28F-, 29F-, 29EE-, 49F-, etc.
16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 010, 020, 040, and maybe more.

Problem is ... I don't own a Master System to test these out. I will not be printing any until I get one.


Tuesday, December 8, 2015

Composite Video from the Nintendo Gameboy

My latest project is to get some sort of video output from the nintendo gameboy. The signals are all present, but are not in a form that can be connected to any television or monitor. My first thought is to convert the signals into a single analog signal called composite video.

Composite video is named as such because it contains color data (chroma), brightness (luma) and synchronization on wire.

1. Chroma is not important in this case becuase the gameboy is monochrome. All of the color differences will be made with Luma.

2. Luma: As above, the Luma will be used to create our four different colors. The TV looks for an analog signal here. The gameboy has two data pins which are used for this purpose, so connected through a DAC of some sort, we can create four different levels rather than just 0v and 5v.

3. Sync
 Csync or composite sync is an XOR of horizontal and vertical sync. These two signals tell the television to move down one line or to move back to the top of the screen. I am not quite sure how progressive or interlaced are determined by these just yet.

Next, these have to be connected together over one wire. As mentioned, the luma is an analog value but what I forgot to mention was that it is a positive signal whereas sync is negative. From what I have read, composite must be AC coupled because the TV input is DC coupled. That being said, our sync can actually be positive as well, as long as the luma is offset by DC value. Once the signal goes into the TV, the DC coupling circuit will block the average DC offset which is our black level. Black level will become 0 volts inside the Tv so sync will become 0v to -0.4v and Luma will be between 0v and +0.7v.

I am not at liberty to share my schematic at this point but it doesn't' work that well anyhow. :P
As a first attempt however, the result is quite promising.

You will notice that the image scrolls in several directions and that it is repeated three times over from left to right. I believe this is a problem with synchronization and possibly the LCD itself.


Updates to follow shortly.